802.1X Port-Based Authentication HOWTO (2023)

This document describes the software and the procedures for installation and use.802.1X: port-based network access controlusingthey are beggingwith PEAP (PEAP/MS-CHAPv2) as the authentication method andfree BEAMas a back-end authentication server.

If an authentication mechanism other than PEAP is preferred, for example EAP-TLS or EAP-TTLS, only a small number of configuration options need to be changed. PEAP/MS-CHAPv2 is also supported on Windows XP SP1/Windows 2000 SP3.

1.1. What is 802.1X?

The 802.1X-2001 standard states:

Port-based network access control takes advantage of the physical access characteristics of IEEE 802 LAN infrastructures to provide a wayauthenticityInauthorizedevices connected to a LAN port with point-to-point and from connection featuresprevent accesson this port in cases where authentication and authorization fail. A port in this context is a single point of connection to the LAN infrastructure."--- 802.1X-2001, p.

802.1X Port-Based Authentication HOWTO (1)

Figure 802.1X: A wireless node must be authenticated to access other LAN resources.

  1. When a new wireless node (WN) requests access to a LAN resource, the access point (AP) requests the identity of the WN.No non-EAP traffic is allowed before the WN is verified (the"sea port"Is closed).

    The wireless node requesting authentication usually appears in the listthey are begging, although it is more correct to say that the wireless hubcontainsa supplicant. The supplicant is responsible for responding to the Authenticator data that will establish their credentials. The same goes for the access point. HeThe authenticator isnot the access point. Instead, the access point contains an authentication. The authenticator does not even need to be at the access point. it may be an external component.

    EAP, the protocol used for authentication, was originally used for PPP over dial-up. Identity was PAP or CHAP username and authentication [RFC1994] was used to verify the user's password. As long as the identity is sent in the clear (unencrypted), a malicious probe can learn the identity of the user."Hide identity"Therefore, it is used; the real identity is not sent until the TLS encrypted tunnel is up.

  2. After submitting the ID, the authentication process begins. The protocol used between the supplicant and the authentication tool is EAP, or more precisely EAP Encapsulation over LAN (EAPOL). The authenticator re-encapsulates the EAP messages in RADIUS format and forwards them to the authentication server.

    During authentication, the authenticator only forwards packets between the supplicant and the authentication server. When the authentication process is complete, the authentication server sends a success (or error, if authentication failed) message.The authenticator then opens it."sea port"for the petitioner.

  3. After successful authentication, the supplicant can access other LAN/Internet resources.

see the figure802.1Xfor an explanation.

why is it called"sea port"based authentication? authenticator manipulationssquaredInsin controlports Both controlled and uncontrolled ports are logical entities (virtual ports), but they use the same physical connection to the LAN (same connection point).

802.1X Port-Based Authentication HOWTO (2)

Figure Port: The authorization status of the controlled port.

Before authentication, it's just the port not selected"Open". The only movement allowed is EAPOL. See Verifier System 1 in the imagesea ​​port. After the supplicant is authenticated, the controlled port is opened and access to other LAN resources is granted. see the Authentication System 2 in the imagesea ​​port.

802.1X plays an important role in the new IEEE 802.11i wireless standard.

1.2. What is 802.11i?

1.2.1. WEP

Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), which is part of the original 802.11 standard, is meant to provide confidentiality. Unfortunately, WEP is poorly designed and easily broken. There is no authentication mechanism, just a weak form of access control (you must have the shared key to communicate). read morehere.

In response to the broken security of WEP, the IEEE has developed a new wireless security standard called 802.11i. 802.1X plays an important role in this new standard.

1.2.2. 802.11i

The new security standard, 802.11i, which was ratified in June 2004, addresses all of WEP's weaknesses. It is divided into three main categories:

  1. Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)it is a short-term solution that fixes all the weaknesses of WEP. TKIP can be used with legacy 802.11 equipment (after a driver/firmware upgrade) and provides integrity and confidentiality.

  2. Tellermodus complies with the CBC-MAC protocol (CCMP) [RFC2610]is a new protocol, designed from scratch. Use AES [FIP 197] as its cryptographic algorithm, and since it is more CPU intensive than RC4 (used in WEP and TKIP), new 802.11 hardware may be required. Some controllers may implement CCMP in software. CCMP provides integrity and confidentiality.

  3. 802.1X port-based network access control:When TKIP or CCMP is used, 802.1X is used for authentication.

In addition, an optional encryption method is included"Wireless Robust Protocol Authentication"(WRAP) can be used instead of CCMP. WRAP was the original AES-based proposal for 802.11i, but it was superseded by CCMP as it was plagued with proprietary issues. WRAP support is optional, but CCMP support is required in 802.11i.

(Video) How to Configure IEEE 802.1X Port Based Authentication

802.11i also has extensive key generation/management, which is described below.

1.2.3. key management Dynamic key exchange and management

To enforce a security policy using encryption and integrity algorithms, keys must be obtained. Fortunately, 802.11i implements a basic production/management scheme. see the figurekilometres.

802.1X Port-Based Authentication HOWTO (3)

Figure KM: Key distribution and management in 802.11i.

  1. When the Supplicant (WN) and the Authentication Server (AS) authenticate, one of the last messages sent by the AS, given that the authentication was successful, isMaster Key (MK). After broadcast, MK is only known to WN and AS. MK is connected to this junction between WN and AS.

  2. Both WN and AS issue a new key calledPairwise Master Key (PMK), of the primary key.

  3. The PMK then moves from the AS to the authenticator (AP). Only the WN and the AS can derive the PMK; otherwise, the AP could make access control decisions instead of the AS. The PMK is a new symmetric key associated with this session between the WN and the AP.

  4. PMK and a 4-way handshake are used between the WN and the AP toPair Transient Key (PTK). PTK is a collection of function keys:

    • Key Confirmation Key (KCK), as the name suggests, is used to prove ownership of the PMK and bind the PMK to the AP.

    • Key Encryption Key (KEK)it is used to distribute the group transition key (GTK). Outlined below.

    • Clave temporal 1 y 2 (TK1/TK2)are used for encryption. The use of TK1 and TK2 is specific to the encryption.

    see the figurePKHfor an overview of the pairwise key hierarchy.

  5. The KEK and a 4-way team handshake are then used to determine it.Group Transition Key (GTK)from AP to WN. The GTK is a shared key between all Supplicants connected to the same Authenticator and is used to protect multicast/broadcast traffic.

802.1X Port-Based Authentication HOWTO (4)

PKH Scheme: Pairwise Key Hierarchy pre-shared key

For small office/home office (SOHO), ad hoc networks, or home use, a Pre-Shared Key (PSK) can be used. When PSK is used, the entire 802.1X authentication process is bypassed. This has also been reported"Personal WPA"(WPA-PSK), while WPA with EAP (and RADIUS) is"WPA Company"or simply"WPA".

256-bit PSK is generated from a given password using PBKDFv2 from [RFC2898], and is used as the master key (MK) as described in the key management scheme above. This can be a single PSK for the entire network (insecure) or one PSK per requestor (more secure).

1.2.4. TSN (WPA) / RSN (WPA2)

The industry did not have time to wait for the 802.11i standard to be finalized. They wanted WEP problems solved now!wifi allianceI felt the pressure, I have one"snapshot"of the template (based on draft 3), and named itWi-Fi Secure Access (WPA). One requirement was that existing 802.11 equipment could be used with WPA, so WPA is actually TKIP + 802.1X.

WPA is not the long-term solution. in aStrong Secure Network (RSN), the hardware must support and use CCMP. RSN is actually CCMP+ 802.1X.

The RSN, which uses TKIP instead of CCMP, is also known as a Transitional Security Network (TSN). RSN can also be called WPA2 to avoid confusion in the marketplace.


First of all:

  • TSN = TKIP + 802.1X = WPA(1)

  • RSN = CCMP + 802.1X = WPA2

In addition, there is key management, as described in the previous paragraph.

(Video) 802.1x Port-based Authentication

1.3. What is EAP?

Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) [RFC 3748] is just the transport protocol optimized for authentication, not the authentication method itself:

"[EAP is] an authentication framework that supports multiple authentication methods. EAP typically runs directly on data link layers, such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) or IEEE 802, without the need for IP. EAP provides its own support for deduplication and relaying, but it is based on lower order guarantees. Hashing is not supported by EAP itself, however individual EAP methods may support it."--- RFC 3748, page 3

1.4. EAP authentication method

Since 802.1X uses EAP, many different authentication schemes can be added, including smart cards, Kerberos, public key, one-time passwords, and others.

Some of the most commonly used EAP authentication mechanisms are listed below. A full list of registered EAP authentication types is available from IANA:http://www.iana.org/assignments/eap-numbers.

802.1X Port-Based Authentication HOWTO (5)

Not all authentication mechanisms are considered secure!

  • EAP-MD5:MD5-Challenge requires username/password and is equivalent to PPP CHAP [RFC1994]. This method is not resistant to dictionary attacks, mutual authentication, or key extraction, and is therefore of little use in a wireless authentication environment.

  • Light EAP (JUMP):A username and password combination is sent to an authentication server (RADIUS) for authentication. Leap is a proprietary protocol developed by Cisco and is not considered secure. Cisco is moving away from LEAP in favor of PEAP. You can find the closest one in a published standardhere.

  • EAP-TLS:Establishes a TLS session within EAP between the supplicant and the authentication server. Both the server and the client need a valid certificate (x509) and therefore a PKI. This method provides two-way authentication. EAP-TLS is described in [RFC2716].

  • EAP-TTLS:Set up an encrypted TLS tunnel for the secure transfer of authentication data. Other authentication methods (if any) can be used within the TLS tunnel. It was developed by Funk Software and Meetinghouse, and is currently an IETF concept.

  • EAP Protegido (PEAP):It uses an encrypted TLS tunnel like EAP-TTLS. Requesting certificates for EAP-TTLS and EAP-PEAP is optional, but server (AS) certificates are required. It was developed by Microsoft, Cisco, and RSA Security and is currently an IETF concept.

  • EAP-MSCHAPv2:It requires a username/password and is essentially an EAP encapsulation of MS-CHAP-v2 [RFC2759]. It is normally used in a PEAP encrypted tunnel. It was developed by Microsoft and is currently an IETF concept.

1.5. What is RADIO?

The Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) is defined in [RFC2865] (with friends), and was mainly used by ISPs that verified the username and password before allowing the user to use the ISP's network.

802.1X does not specify what kind of back-end authentication server there should be, but RADIUS is the "de facto" back-end authentication server used in 802.1X.

There are not many AAA protocols available, but both RADIUS and DIAMETER [RFC3588] (including its extensions) comply with full AAA support. AAA stands for Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (IETF AAA Working Group).

As described inkey management, one of the main advantages of using Dynamic WEP/802.11i with 802.1X is the support for session keys. A new encryption key is generated for each session.

they are beggingonly supports"Dynamic WEP"as of this writing. Support for WPA and RSN/WPA2 (802.11i) is in the works and is expected to be supported by the end of this year or early next year (2004/2005), said Chris Hessing (one of thexsmekersdevelopers).

Not all wireless stations support dynamic WEP or WPA. Using RSN (WPA2) may even require new hardware support. Many older drivers assume that only one WEP key will be used on the network at any one time. The card is reset each time the password is changed for the new password to take effect. This triggers a new authentication and there is an endless loop.

At the time of writing, most wireless drivers in the basic Linux kernel require patches for dynamic WEP/WPA to work. They will be updated over time to support these new features. However, many drivers developed outside the kernel support dynamic WEP. HostAP, madwifi, Orinoco and atmel should all work without a problem.

Instead of using Xsupplicant,wpa_supplicantcould be used. Supports WPA and RSN (WPA2) and a wide variety of EAP authentication methods.

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(Video) Port Security vs Port Based Authentication (802.1x) Whats the Difference?

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    (Video) CCNA Security | Configuring 802.1x Port Based Authentication

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(Video) IEEE 802.1X | Understanding 802.1X Authentication | What is IEEE 802.1X and How does 802.1X work?

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How do I check my 802.1X authentication? ›

How to turn on 802.1x authentication, Windows 10
  1. Depress the windows key, and the letter 'R' on your keyboard.
  2. Type in services. ...
  3. In the management console, select services from Services and Applications at the bottom of the left hand column.
  4. Select Wired Autoconfig.
  5. Set startup to Automatic.
Feb 18, 2020

What are the three parts of 802.1X authentication? ›

802.1x authentication consists of three components—a supplicant, an authenticator, and an authentication server (see Figure 1). The supplicant, or client, is the device attempting to gain access to the network.

When performing 802.1X authentication What protocol does the authenticator use to communicate with the authentication server? ›

802.1X uses EAP and the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol, which enables communication between the authenticator and the authentication server.

What traffic is allowed through an 802.1X configured port before authentication is completed? ›

If the port is configured as a voice VLAN port, the port allows VoIP traffic and 802.1x protocol packets before the client is successfully authenticated.

How do I check network level authentication? ›

The first option is to go to Settings in your Start menu, and choose Remote Desktop. Now click Enable Remote Desktop ON, and Confirm with the pop up window. Click into the Advanced Settings, and select the option that says Require computers to use Network Level Authentication to connect.

How do I authenticate my network connection? ›

Determine domain name
  1. Click the Windows button.
  2. Right-click Computervin the right-hand column.
  3. Click Properties.
  4. Note your domain name.
  5. On the Authentication Required dialog box, enter your domain into the Domain field and click OK.
Mar 27, 2023

What are the 3 basic approaches to user authentication? ›

There are three basic types of authentication. The first is knowledge-based — something like a password or PIN code that only the identified user would know. The second is property-based, meaning the user possesses an access card, key, key fob or authorized device unique to them. The third is biologically based.

What are 802.11 authentication methods? ›

802.1X authentication

The authentication protocols that operate inside the 802.1X framework include EAP-Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS), Protected EAP (PEAP), and EAP-Tunneled TLS (EAP-TTLS). These protocols allow the network to authenticate the client while also allowing the client to authenticate the network.

What are two of the protocols that 802.11 I use for authentication? ›

There are two enterprise level encryption mechanisms specified in 802.11i: WPA and WPA2. These encryption types are Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).

How do I enable 802.1 authentication? ›

Right-click the appropriate network connection (Ethernet or Local Area Connection) and select Properties. In the Ethernet Properties dialog box select the Authentication tab and check 'Enable IEEE 802.1x authentication'. In the 'Choose a network authentication method' dropdown select Microsoft Protected EAP (PEAP).

How do I fix network authentication problem? ›

How Do I Fix a Wi-Fi Authentication Error?
  1. Turn airplane mode on and then off again. ...
  2. Restart your phone. ...
  3. "Forget" the Wi-Fi network from your phone by deleting it from the list of saved networks. ...
  4. Reset the phone's network settings. ...
  5. Troubleshoot this as a slow internet connection. ...
  6. Restart the network hardware.
Sep 17, 2022

How to bypass Network Level Authentication? ›

3. Disable and Re-Enable NLA Settings Via System Settings
  1. Press Win + R to open the Run command dialog box.
  2. Type sysdm. ...
  3. Navigate to the Remote tab.
  4. Uncheck the Allow connections only from computers running Remote Desktop with Network Level Authentication (recommended) box.
  5. Press Apply and then press OK.
Sep 18, 2022

How do I fix network authentication? ›

How to Fix the Android Wi-Fi Authentication Problem
  1. Reset Wi-Fi Connection. ...
  2. Turn on Airplane Mode and Turn It off. ...
  3. Fix the Android Wi-Fi Authentication Problem with DroidKit. ...
  4. Change from DHCP to Static. ...
  5. Restart the Router. ...
  6. Use WPS Push Button. ...
  7. Change Security Protocol. ...
  8. Check the Maximum Devices Supported.
Oct 27, 2022

What should my network authentication be set to? ›

When choosing from among WEP, WPA, WPA2 and WPA3 wireless security protocols, experts agree WPA3 is best for Wi-Fi security. As the most up-to-date wireless encryption protocol, WPA3 is the most secure choice.

What does authentication failed mean? ›

"Authentication Failed"

This is typically due to a mistyped password, but it can also be caused by an incorrect username, connecting to the wrong server, or blacklisting.

What does it mean by authentication problem? ›

If you receive this error message, that means that the username and/or password that you have entered is incorrect. The error message states “Authentication failed!

What is the most common user authentication method? ›

Passwords are the most common methods of authentication. Passwords can be in the form of a string of letters, numbers, or special characters. To protect yourself you need to create strong passwords that include a combination of all possible options.

Which is the most powerful authentication method among the four? ›

After traditional password-based login, Multi-Factor Authentication is the most trusted authentication mechanism. For improved security, password-based traditional authentication and Multi-Factor Authentication methods are usually used simultaneously.

What is the most secure authentication method? ›

3 Most Secure Authentication Methods
  • One-Time Password (OTP) An OTP and its sibling, time-based one-time passwords (TOTP), are unique temporary passwords. ...
  • Biometrics Authentication. If there's one thing that you always have with you, it's your body. ...
  • Continuous Authentication. ...
  • The Three Factors of Authentication.
Jun 20, 2022

What are the three main security standards for 802.11 wireless networks? ›

This article presents a tutorial/discussion of three commonly-used IEEE 802.11 wireless network security standards: WEP, WPA and WPA2.

What is the strongest security protocol for 802.11 i today? ›

Also known as "Robust Security Network" (RSN), 802.11i provides sophisticated authentication using a variety of protocols (802.1X, EAP and RADIUS) and strong security with the AES-CCMP encryption protocol.

What is the difference between open and shared 802.11 authentication? ›

Conclusion. Open and shared authentication are two authentications in WEP. The main difference between WEP Open and WEP Shared is that WEP Open automatically authenticates any client without considering whether he has the correct WEP keys while WEP shared performs the actual authentication process.

What is the default authentication method according to the 802.11 standard? ›

The original 802.11 standard offered only two choices to authenticate a client: Open Authentication and WEP. Open Authentication offers open access to a WLAN. The only requirement is that a client must use an 802.11 authentication request before it attempts to associate with an AP. No other credentials are needed.

What are the three aspects of a 3 factor authentication? ›

Three-factor authentication (3FA) is the use of identity-confirming credentials from three separate categories of authentication factors -- typically, the knowledge, possession and inherence categories.

What are the 3 keys according to the 802.11 management key hierarchy? ›

These keys (and their 802.11i definitions) are: Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) Key - Key information that is jointly negotiated between the Supplicant and the Authentication Server (AS). This key information is transported via a secure channel from the AS to the Authenticator.

Which are the three 3 factor categories used in multi factor authentication? ›

What Are The 3 Types Of Multi-Factor Authentication?
  • Something You Know. The first method of authentication is called knowledge-based authentication (KBA), and involves something the user knows. ...
  • Something You Have. The second method of authentication is via something that the user has. ...
  • Something You Are. ...
  • Summary.
Mar 28, 2023

What 3 methods of multi factor authentication are supported? ›

Three Main Types of MFA Authentication Methods
  • Things you know (knowledge), such as a password or PIN.
  • Things you have (possession), such as a badge or smartphone.
  • Things you are (inherence), such as a biometric like fingerprints or voice recognition.

What are the two most commonly used authentication factors? ›

Authentication using two or more factors to achieve authentication. Factors include: (i) something you know (e.g., password/personal identification number [PIN]); (ii) something you have (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or (iii) something you are (e.g., biometric).

What is Type 3 authentication examples? ›

Type 3 – Something You Are – includes any part of the human body that can be offered for verification, such as fingerprints, palm scanning, facial recognition, retina scans, iris scans, and voice verification.

What are three authentication examples? ›

Usually, authentication by a server entails the use of a user name and password. Other ways to authenticate can be through cards, retina scans, voice recognition, and fingerprints.

What are the 5 categories of multifactor authentication? ›

Key takeaways

Today, many organizations use multiple authentication factors to control access to secure data systems and applications. The five main authentication factor categories are knowledge factors, possession factors, inherence factors, location factors, and behavior factors.

What is the most common example of multifactor authentication? ›

Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is a multi-step account login process that requires users to enter more information than just a password. For example, along with the password, users might be asked to enter a code sent to their email, answer a secret question, or scan a fingerprint.

What is the difference between 2 factor authentication and 2 step verification? ›

In the past, two-step verification was used to describe processes that used the same authentication factors, while two-factor authentication described processes that involved different factors, such as entering a password on a website and receiving a numerical code on a mobile device.

Which is the strongest most secure authentication factor among the 3 authentication factors? ›

The Inherence Factor is often said to be the strongest of all authentication factors. The Inherence Factor asks the user to confirm their identity by presenting evidence inherent to their unique features.

How many forms of authentication do you need for multifactor authentication? ›

Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is a security measure that requires two or more proofs of identity to grant you access.

What are strong authentication methods? ›

Strong authentication methods typically involve dynamically generated OTPs or certificate- and context-based authentication. The OTP employs a security device in the user's possession and a back-end server.


1. 802.1x Port- Based Authentication
(Selvajegan Networking Channel)
2. Port Based Authentication 802 1x Introduction
3. NetLAB.si: HowTo Cisco 802.1x authentication - wired
(David kavčnik)
4. Port-Based (802.1x) Authentication
5. FortiGate/FortiSwitch 802.1x port authentication (and MAB) with Windows RADIUS
(ToThePoint Fortinet)
6. MicroNugget: How to Use 802.1X and NAC
(CBT Nuggets)


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