4.3 Cooperation with third countries (2023)

Cases involving third countries

Eurojust's international cooperation continues to result in an increasing number of cases being registered with the Agency, with 331 new cases belonging to third countries in 2022 alone. Countries with a liaison officer at Eurojust were called to participate in cases 569 times in 2022. In addition, 35 cases involved countries that have signed a cooperation agreement with Eurojust but have not yet seconded a liaison officer to the agency. Countries with designated Eurojust contact points have been invited to participate in 79 cases. The United Kingdom is the third country with the most cases, with 315 cases in 2022, followed by Switzerland, Norway, Albania, Serbia and Ukraine.

Summary of cases in 2022 with judge link

Association ProsecutorCases initiated by the liaison officerParticipation in matters initiated by other OfficesParticipation in joint activities/meetings
New in 2022Number of countries involvedContinued from previous yearsNew in 2021Continued from previous yearsto coordinate. meetingsJITdays of action
23 or more
north macedonia431112140801
United Kingdom474165426871279294

* These columns cannot be listed as more than one national office may be requested to be involved in a case and coordination meetings and JITs are often organized jointly.

Suppression of a criminal network involved in money laundering and fraud

4.3 Cooperation with third countries (1)

September 2019 -The suspects allegedly created companies in Romania and opened bank accounts for them from which constant and successive transfers (estimated at more than 70 million euros) of fraudulent activity are made. A case has been opened at Eurojust against OCG suspected of money laundering and fraud.

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June 2020 -A JIT will be established between Romania and Ukraine, which will be extended to Italy in June 2021. Eurojust supports judicial cooperation and coordination of more than 20 countries, organizes 4 coordination meetings and facilitates the execution of many ODE and MLA requests.

December 6, 2020 -During a day of action in Romania, nine suspects are arrested and one is placed under judicial supervision. A total of 24 house searches are being carried out, 13 in Romania, 7 in the Republic of Moldova and 4 in Sweden. The total value of the seized assets exceeds 5 million euros.

4.3 Cooperation with third countries (2)

International agreements with third countries

In March 2021, the Council adopted a decision authorizing the European Commission to start negotiations on international cooperation agreements with Eurojust between 13 third countries[1]and the European Union. Negotiations with Armenia are well advanced. As noted in the CommissionFifth progress report on the implementation of the EU Security Union StrategyLaunched in December 2022, formal negotiations have also started with Colombia, Algeria and Lebanon. In 2022, Eurojust was in close contact with the Commission services and participated in the negotiation meetings as an observer.

Colleges of Justice Officials

Reception of liaison officers from third countries at Eurojust's premises in The Hague allows the authorities of the Member States to work closely with the judicial authorities of those countries. This allows for immediate engagement in operational cooperation between them, leading to more successful investigations and prosecutions.

Thirteen countries currently have liaison judges at Eurojust: Albania, Georgia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Ukraine, the United States and the United Kingdom. The UK has a liaison officer with the Agency under the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement from 2021 andwork datesigned with Eurojust in the same year.

Work agreements with external partners

In August 2022, Eurojust signed a working agreement with the Ibero-American Association of Public Prosecutors. The purpose of the working agreement is to promote and develop cooperation between the parties in the fight against serious crimes affecting the European Union and Latin America, in particular cross-border organized crime, drug trafficking, human trafficking, cybercrime and terrorism.

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Eurojust contact points

Since its creation in 2002, the Agency has extended its network of contact points to third countries, allowing direct contact with the competent authorities of those countries when a crime crosses the borders of the EU. To date, the network has points contact in more than 65 countries.

In 2022, Eurojust's network of contact points was extended to include three new third countries: Australia, Bahrain and Morocco. During the year, the Agency started to hold regular contact point meetings to better explain the Agency's role in facilitating judicial cooperation with EU Member States.

4.3 Cooperation with third countries (3)

Eurojust-supported action leads to the arrest of 29 traffickers in Italy, Greece and Albania

4.3 Cooperation with third countries (4)

Crime:A network of human traffickers is smuggling at least 1,100 migrants into the European Union. The suspects make illegal profits of at least several hundred million euros.

Action:A JIT will be established in January 2021 involving the judicial authorities of Italy, Greece and Albania. In preparation for the day of action, authorities have been monitoring the suspects for a long time using wiretaps, online wiretaps and video recordings. This allows them to document the routes used by the network and identify the perpetrators.

Result:During the day of action supported by Eurojust, Europol and Frontex, 29 suspects of Albanian, Turkish, Syrian, Iranian, Iraqi and Pakistani origin were arrested in Italy, Greece and Albania. Eight of them are arrested during an ongoing smuggling operation and the migrants involved are taken to safety.

The role of Eurojust:In addition to supporting the JIT, Eurojust will establish a coordination center during the day of the action and provide cross-border legal support through the Agency's National Offices in Italy and Greece and the Liaison Prosecutor for Albania.

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4.3 Cooperation with third countries (5)

Collaborate through projects with regions around the world

Southern Partner Countries (SPC)

The increasing role of Eurojust and its growing involvement in the SPCs continued in 2022 with its further implementationEuroMed Justice Program(2020-2023). Eurojust supported the development of practical tools to facilitate cross-border judicial cooperation, designed by the EuroMed Justice Expert Group to provide criminal justice professionals with up-to-date information and tools. Updated in 2022Euro-Mediterranean digital datahad been issued. The guide explains the conditions required to identify and overcome practical and legal obstacles to the collection of electronic evidence.

In October 2022, the Secretariat of the European Judicial Network became a member of EMJNet, the network of contact points for criminal justice authorities of the SPCs and EU Member States In 2022, Eurojust and the Secretariat of the European Judicial Network (EJN) contributed to the EMJNet project and provided guidance for the implementation of the Trans-Mediterranean Strategies 2022-2025.

In October 2022, theIV EuroMed Forum of Attorneys Generalchief prosecutors from all SPCs and EU Member States met at the Eurojust premises. The Forum assessed the progress made so far and discussed the next steps to implement the 2022-2025 strategy, including action plans on migrant smuggling, confiscation of proceeds of crime and asset recovery. During the event, seven high-level meetings were held with the SPC delegations (with the participation of representatives of the European Commission) to discuss the international agreements between the European Union and the SPCs on Eurojust.

Several conferences were organized in 2022 bringing together criminal justice professionals and experts from SPC and EU Member States In May 2022, a conference was held in Athens in collaboration with the Greek Ministry of Justice to exchange operational experiences and best practices for the prevention, investigation and prosecution of migrant smuggling. In the same month, a conference was held in Lyon, in close cooperation with the French Ministry of Justice, to help judicial and police authorities apply data protection standards when collecting cross-border electronic evidence in criminal cases. In Tunisia, in June 2022, the firstMediterranean conferencewas held on the theme of environmental justice, where Algeria, France and Tunisia exchanged good practices for a more effective implementation of environmental legislation. The conference considered the development of a network of judicial specialists in environmental law on both sides of the Mediterranean.

In addition, the National Institute of Justice in Bucharest and the Belgian Institute for Judicial Training co-organizedtwo round tablesexchange of practices on the development of transmediterranean curricula for international judicial cooperation in criminal matters.

Criminal Justice Project in the Western Balkans[2]

In September 2022, Eurojust started working on theWBCJ Project, funded by the EU Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance The main objective of the project is to strengthen cooperation in the Western Balkans[3]and between the region and the European Union to combat organized crime and terrorism using modern tools and means. This will lead to further interaction and integration between the European Union and the Western Balkans in the field of criminal justice.

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The Western Balkans have long been an important ally of Eurojust in the fight against cross-border organized crime. By hosting this project, we reinforce existing efforts and help overcome remaining obstacles to judicial cooperation between Western Balkan partners and between them and EU Member States. Our aim is to build long-term structural partnerships leading to a operational improvement results.

Between October and December 2022, the President and Vice-Presidents of Eurojust visited the sixPartners in the Western BalkansPresent the project to the participating authorities. The Western Balkans partners have designated their respective contact group members, who will be responsible for identifying common cases that would benefit from coordination. These selected cases receive financial support and expert advice from Eurojust to facilitate coordinated investigations and parallel prosecutions and JIT.

4.3 Cooperation with third countries (6)

Cooperation with Latin America

WithinEL PACCTO projectTo promote a closer dialogue with Latin America, Eurojust has developed a guide for cooperation with Eurojust contact points in the region. The guide was distributed to all contact points in July 2022 in both Spanish and English. Meetings between Eurojust representatives and Latin American contact points are planned to discuss the implementation of the guide.

Eurojust participated in the EL PAcCTO event in Buenos Aires in November 2022 to discuss the cooperation between the Agency and the Latin American contact points and share the latest updates on Eurojust's support to JITs.

[1]Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Colombia, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey

[2]This project is also called WB CRIM JUST.

[3]Including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.
*This designation is without prejudice to positions on status and is consistent with UN Security Council 1244 and UN Security Council advice on Kosovo's declaration of independence.


What are the third countries? ›

A country that is not a member of the European Union as well as a country or territory whose citizens do not enjoy the European Union right to free movementEN•••, as defined in Art. 2(5) of the Regulation (EU) 2016/399 (Schengen Borders Code)EN•••.

What are the push factors of third world countries? ›

Migrants from developing countries such as South American countries are often pushed by social factors such as poverty, lack of employment opportunities, education and housing to migrate to countries such as the US.

What are examples of push factors in a country? ›

Examples of push factors include war, political instability, famine, and drought, among others. Examples of pull factors include political stability, lots of jobs, natural resources, better learning institutions, and better climate. Ultimately, migration happens because of the combination of push and pull factors.

What is an example of a political push factor? ›

Examples of political push factors: • war, persecution • Cubans feared being jailed for disagreeing with their dictator leader, Fidel Castro. Examples of environmental push factors: • drought • Irish people faced starvation when a fungus destroyed their potato crops.

What are the 1st 2nd and 3rd countries? ›

The First World consisted of the U.S., Western Europe and their allies. The Second World was the so-called Communist Bloc: the Soviet Union, China, Cuba and friends. The remaining nations, which aligned with neither group, were assigned to the Third World.

Are US citizens third country nationals? ›

A third-country national (TCN) is an individual who meets the following criteria. (1) Is neither a citizen of the United States nor of the country to which assigned for duty. (2) If employed, is eligible for return travel to the TCN's home country or country from which recruited at U.S. Government expense.

What are the major problems faced by Third World countries? ›

Poor household amenities. ✦The lack of basic services like a clean water supply, rubbish collection and sewerage disposal mean that the risks of disease are very high. ✦Poor hospital facilities especially in far-flung places ✦No access to support, information and services.

What are the major threats to the developing countries of the Third World? ›

The world's most vulnerable nations face many obstacles, including soaring debt, export marginalization, energy poverty and climate vulnerability. About 1.1 billion people live in least developed countries (LDCs), which face daunting development challenges.

What are the characteristics of Third World countries? ›

The modern definition of “Third World” is used to classify countries that are poor or developing. Countries that are part of the “third world” are generally characterized by (1) high rates of poverty, (2) economic and/or political instability, and (3) high mortality rates.

What are USA push factors? ›

The push factors were what drove the immigrants from their country such as religious persecution, political oppression and poverty. The pull factors were what attracted immigrants to America such as its civil rights, economic opportunities, religious freedom, free speech, and freedom of expression.

What are some United States push factors? ›

Push factors are usually poor conditions in the homeland. These can be social, political, or economic factors. These drive people to leave the land they were born in. Social push factors include lack of social mobility and job restrictions.

What are push factors for America? ›

Push factors may include conflict, drought, famine, lack of jobs, and discrimination. Pull factors are those factors in the destination country that attract the individual or group to leave their home. Better economic opportunities, more jobs, and the promise of a better life often pull people into new locations.

What are 4 modern examples of push factors? ›

Push Factors
  • Lack of jobs or opportunities.
  • Absence of good educational institutes.
  • Poor medical care.
  • Poverty.
  • Famine or drought.
  • War and political conflicts.
  • Religious or political persecution.
  • Natural disasters.
Nov 27, 2021

What are 5 examples of pull factors? ›

Common pull factors include:
  • Employment opportunities.
  • Higher income.
  • Better working conditions and facilities.
  • Educational opportunities.
  • Higher living standards.
  • Better public services.
  • Religious freedom.
  • Freedom of expression.
Nov 26, 2021

What are 2 examples of political pull factors? ›

Political pull factors include having more rights and liberties in a country, access to good health and social services, and good education. Having laws in a country that protect freedom of religion and prevent discrimination based on race or sexual orientation can also be pull factors.

What is a 3rd or 4th world country? ›

The term Fourth World was born later as an extension of the developing Third World to describe places and populations characterized by extremely low income per capita and limited natural resources. Fourth World nations consisted of those excluded from mainstream society.

Is the US a first second or Third World country? ›

People often use the term “Third World” as shorthand for poor or developing nations. By contrast, wealthier countries such as the United States and the nations of Western Europe are described as being part of the “First World.” Where did these distinctions come from, and why do we rarely hear about the “Second World?”

Is the US a First World country? ›

Examples of first world countries include the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Several Western European nations qualify as well, especially Great Britain, France, Germany, Switzerland, and the Scandinavian countries.

What country are U.S. citizens moving to? ›

Mexico is the top destination for Americans moving abroad, followed by the U.K., Canada and Australia. So far in 2022, ~75% more Americans have moved to Mexico than Canada. Portugal has seen the biggest percentage increase in Americans moving in (+122% from 2019-2021)

Who is a U.S. national but not a U.S. citizen? ›

Section 308 of the INA confers U.S. nationality but not U.S. citizenship, on persons born in "an outlying possession of the United States" or born of a parent or parents who are non-citizen nationals who meet certain physical presence or residence requirements.

Which U.S. territories are not U.S. citizens? ›

People born in American Samoa, which has been held by the United States for more than 120 years, are not automatically citizens of the United States.

What do Third World countries often mistakenly? ›

Third World countries often mistakenly decide to permit rapid industrialization. When this industrialization occurs, many new factories open, and workers get jobs.

What is it like living in a Third World country? ›

In developing countries, low production rates and struggling labor market characteristics are usually paired with relatively low levels of education, poor infrastructure, improper sanitation, limited access to health care, and lower costs of living.

What is 3 an example of a Third World country? ›

What is an example of a third world country? Under the Cold War definition of a third world country, Venezuela, the Philippines, and Egypt were third world countries. Modern developing countries include Somalia, Honduras, and Nepal.

Why Third World countries remain underdeveloped? ›

Unfair trading practices and insufficient aid are both causes of underdevelopment. The system of international trade developed under imperialism, whereby developing countries export cheap raw materials and import expensive finished products persists to this day.

How do we know that a country is a Third World country? ›

In recent years, the term has come to define countries that have high poverty rates, economic instability and lack basic human necessities like access to water, shelter or food for its citizens. These countries are often underdeveloped, and in addition to widespread poverty, they also have high mortality rates.

Which countries are not Third World? ›

Alternatives to the term Third World

The United Nations Member States Monaco, Nauru, North Korea, and Somalia are typically excluded from the Human Development Index.

How many Third World countries are there? ›

According to the IMF definition, there are 152 developing countries with a current population of around 6.77 billion. At 85.49 percent, this is a considerable proportion of the world's population.

Why did Germans immigrate to America? ›

They migrated to America for a variety of reasons. Push factors involved worsening opportunities for farm ownership in central Europe, persecution of some religious groups, and military conscription; pull factors were better economic conditions, especially the opportunity to own land, and religious freedom.

Why is the US called a nation of immigrants? ›

The moniker nation of immigrants is a reminder that all the founding figures of the country were immigrants, the children of immigrants, or slaves forcibly brought to the country. Second, immigration has played a major role in the development of the U.S., often as the labor forces that physically built the country.

Who almost half of the new immigrants who came to the United States in the late 1800s? ›

Answers. Almost half of the new immigrants who came to the United States in the late 1800s eventually returned to their home countries. In the late 1800s, there are many immigrants came from Southern and Eastern Europe countries such as Italy, Poland, Russia, and Greece. It is known as the NEW immigrants.

What are new immigrant push factors? ›

Push factors compell people to leave their homes. These include famine, war, and persecution. Pull factors, such as economic opportunities or religious freedom, draw people to a new place. Land reform and low prices for grain pushed farmers in Mexico, Poland, China, and Italy to leave.

What are 5 economic push factors? ›

Economic Push and Pull Factors

Economic push factors are factors that force people to migrate; they are negative conditions such as poverty, environmental degradation, unemployment, low pay, low standard of living, high taxation, and lack of resources and services.

What are push factors for immigrants today? ›

Push factors “push” people away from their home and include things like war. Pull factors “pull” people to a new home and include things like better opportunities. The reasons people migrate are usually economic, political, cultural, or environmental.

Where did Irish immigrants settle? ›

Irish immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s settled mainly in coastal states such as New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, but also in western states such as Illinois and Ohio.

What are the 5 push factors of immigration? ›

The important factors which motivate people to move can be classified into five categories. They are economic factors, demographic factors, socio-cultural factors, political factors and miscellaneous factors.

What are 4 push factors for immigration? ›

Push factors describe the reasons that individuals might emigrate from their homes, including poverty, lack of social mobility, violence, or persecution.

Where did most immigrants come from in the 1900s? ›

Drawn by America's labor opportunities, immigrants came predominantly from Canada and Europe, migrating from countries such as Germany, Britain, Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. The statistics gathered by the 1900 census were published in 1903 in an atlas that converted the census data into maps and charts.

Which regions had the most asylum seekers in 2014? ›

Which regions had the most asylum seekers in 2014? [North America and Europe.]

What are the push and pull factors of brain drain? ›

There are both push and pull factors affecting brain drain. Pull factors include higher employment rate, higher salary and a perceived increase in quality of life, while the push factors are high youth unemployment and high enterprise death rate.

What are negative push factors? ›

Push factors are negative factors that deter people from their original locale. Poor medical care is a push factor because it could prevent people from effectively battling illnesses.

What are environmental push factors? ›

An environmental push factor is when people have to leave to survive. Things like natural disasters, droughts, flooding, and, lack of resources are just some push factors that cause people to move.

What are the push factors of Christianity? ›

Push factors motivating Christians to emigrate include religious discrimination, persecution, and cleansing. Pull factors include prospects of upward mobility as well as joining relatives abroad.

What is an example of an intervening obstacle? ›

Intervening obstacles are factors that cause migrants challenges or prevent them from reaching their goal. Examples of intervening obstacles include mountains, forests, deserts, cities and bodies of water.

What is a cultural push factor? ›

Cultural push factors usually involve slavery, political instability, ethnic cleansing, famine, and war. People who choose to flee or are forced to flee as a result of these problems are often refugees.

Why do people migrate? ›

Some people move in search of work or economic opportunities, to join family, or to study. Others move to escape conflict, persecution, terrorism, or human rights violations. Still others move in response to the adverse effects of climate change, natural disasters, or other environmental factors.

What are 3rd and 2nd world countries? ›

The Second World consisted of the communist Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites. The Third World, meanwhile, encompassed all the other countries that were not actively aligned with either side in the Cold War.

How many countries are Third World? ›

According to the IMF definition, there are 152 developing countries with a current population of around 6.77 billion. At 85.49 percent, this is a considerable proportion of the world's population.

What are the second and third countries? ›

Second World countries are countries that are more stable and more developed than Third World countries which exist in parts of Africa, South and Central America and south Asia, but less stable and less developed than First World countries such as Norway, the United States, or France.

What is the difference between 3rd and 4th world countries? ›

The term “Fourth World Countries” is sometimes used unofficially to describe countries (or parts of countries) in the Third World that are most stricken by poverty. Most of these regions do not have political ties. The people of these nations are hunter-gatherers, live in nomadic communities, or are part of tribes.

Are there any fourth world countries? ›

The 47 least developed countries are often referred to as the Fourth World. These are the countries at the lowest end of the poverty scale with the lowest level of development.
The fourth world: Least Developed Countries.
Population13.0 M
GNI per capita1,350 USD
Human Asset Index49.4
Health Index53.2
46 more columns

Is Mexico considered a Third World country? ›

The World Bank classifies Mexico as an upper-middle-income country. However, the country is characterised by vast social disparities.

Is Mexico a third country? ›

According to the definition, Mexico is a third-world country. But it's not quite so simple. But using GDP, economic index, and World Bank report, the country is far from being a third world. Mexico enjoys a thriving economy, with the GDP increasing yearly for the past five years.

What is a fifth world country? ›

Characteristics. Least developed countries generally suffer conditions of extreme poverty, ongoing and widespread conflict (including civil war or ethnic clashes), extensive political corruption, and lack political and social stability.

Is Mexico a 1st world country? ›

Technically- Mexico is listed by the UN as a developing economy. Other developing economies include:Costa Rica, China, Brazil, the UAE, and about 50 other countries!

Why is it called a Third World country? ›

Because many countries in the Third World were impoverished, the term came to be used to refer to countries where poverty is rampant, where health care is inadequate, and where democracy does not flourish.

What countries are in the 1st 2nd 3rd 4th world? ›

Four Worlds

1—The bloc of democratic-industrial countries within the American influence sphere, the “First World”. 2—The Eastern bloc of the communist-socialist states, the “Second World”. 3—The remaining three-quarters of the world's population, states not aligned with either bloc were regarded as the “Third World.”

Is Costa Rica a Third World country? ›

Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are all considered part of the developing world. The term developing world is one of many terms used to describe these countries.


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